Diffie–Hellman key exchange (D–H)^{[nb 1]} is a specific method of exchanging keys. It is one of the earliest practical examples of key exchange implemented within the field of cryptography. The Diffie–Hellman key exchange method allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure communications channel. This key can then be used to encrypt subsequent communications using a symmetric key cipher. The scheme was first published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman in 1976, although it later emerged that it had been separately invented a few years earlier within GCHQ, the British signals intelligence agency, by Malcolm J. Williamson but was kept classified. In 2002, Hellman suggested the algorithm be called Diffie–Hellman–Merkle key exchange in recognition of Ralph Merkle's contribution to the invention of publickey cryptography (Hellman, 2002). Although Diffie–Hellman key agreement itself is an anonymous (nonauthenticated) keyagreement protocol, it provides the basis for a variety of authenticated protocols, and is used to provide perfect forward secrecy in Transport Layer Security's ephemeral modes (referred to as EDH or DHE depending on the cipher suite).
[edit]History of the protocolThe Diffie–Hellman key agreement was invented in 1976 during a collaboration between Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman and was the first practical method for establishing a shared secret over an unprotected communications channel. Ralph Merkle's work on public key distribution was an influence. John Gill suggested application of the discrete logarithm problem. It had first been invented by Malcolm Williamson of GCHQ in the UK some years previously, but GCHQ chose not to make it public until 1997, by which time it had no influence on research in academia. The method was followed shortly afterwards by RSA, another implementation of public key cryptography using asymmetric algorithms. In 2002, Martin Hellman wrote:
U.S. Patent 4,200,770, now expired, describes the algorithm and credits Hellman, Diffie, and Merkle as inventors. [edit]DescriptionDiffie–Hellman establishes a shared secret that can be used for secret communications by exchanging data over a public network. Here is an explanation which includes the encryption's mathematics: The simplest, and original, implementation of the protocol uses the multiplicative group of integers modulo p, where p is prime and g is primitive root mod p. Here is an example of the protocol, with nonsecret values in green, and secret values in boldface red:
Both Alice and Bob have arrived at the same value, because (g^{a})^{b} and (g^{b})^{a} are equal mod p. Note that only a, b and g^{ab} = g^{ba} mod p are kept secret. All the other values – p, g, g^{a} mod p, and g^{b} mod p – are sent in the clear. Once Alice and Bob compute the shared secret they can use it as an encryption key, known only to them, for sending messages across the same open communications channel. Of course, much larger values of a, b, and p would be needed to make this example secure, since it is easy to try all the possible values of g^{ab} mod 23. There are only 23 possible integers as the result of mod 23. If p were a prime of at least 300 digits, and a and b were at least 100 digits long, then even the best algorithms known today could not find a given only g, p, g^{b} mod p and g^{a} mod p, even using all of mankind's computing power. The problem is known as the discrete logarithm problem. Note that g need not be large at all, and in practice is usually either 2 or 5. Here's a more general description of the protocol:
Both Alice and Bob are now in possession of the group element g^{ab}, which can serve as the shared secret key. The values of (g^{b})^{a} and (g^{a})^{b} are the same because groups are power associative. (See also exponentiation.) In order to decrypt a message m, sent as mg^{ab}, Bob (or Alice) must first compute (g^{ab})^{1}, as follows: Bob knows G, b, and g^{a}. A result from group theory establishes that from the construction of G, x^{G} = 1 for all x in G. Bob then calculates (g^{a})^{Gb} = g^{a(Gb)} = g^{aGab} = g^{aG}g^{ab} = (g^{G})^{a}g^{ab}=1^{a}g^{ab}=g^{ab}=(g^{ab})^{1}. When Alice sends Bob the encrypted message, mg^{ab}, Bob applies (g^{ab})^{1} and recovers mg^{ab}(g^{ab})^{1} = m(1) = m. [edit]ChartHere is a chart to help simplify who knows what. (Eve is an eavesdropper—she watches what is sent between Alice and Bob, but she does not alter the contents of their communications.)
Note: It should be difficult for Alice to solve for Bob's private key or for Bob to solve for Alice's private key. If it is not difficult for Alice to solve for Bob's private key (or vice versa), Eve may simply substitute her own private / public key pair, plug Bob's public key into her private key, produce a fake shared secret key, and solve for Bob's private key (and use that to solve for the shared secret key. Eve may attempt to choose a public / private key pair that will make it easy for her to solve for Bob's private key). A demonstration of DiffieHellman (using numbers too small for practical use) is given here [edit]Operation with more than two partiesDiffieHellman key agreement is not limited to negotiating a key shared by only two participants. Any number of users can take part in an agreement by performing iterations of the agreement protocol and exchanging intermediate data (which does not itself need to be kept secret). For example, Alice, Bob, and Carol could participate in a DiffieHellman agreement as follows, with all operations taken to be modulo p:
An eavesdropper has been able to see g^{a}, g^{b}, g^{c}, g^{ab}, g^{ac}, and g^{bc}, but cannot use any combination of these to reproduce g^{abc}. To extend this mechanism to larger groups, two basic principles must be followed:
These principles leave open various options for choosing in which order participants contribute to keys. The simplest and most obvious solution is to arrange the N participants in a circle and have N keys rotate around the circle, until eventually every key has been contributed to by all N participants (ending with its owner) and each participant has contributed to N keys (ending with their own). However, this requires that every participant perform N modular exponentiations. By choosing a more optimal order, and relying on the fact that keys can be duplicated, it is possible to reduce the number of modular exponentiations performed by each participant to log_{2}N + 1 using a divideandconquerstyle approach, given here for eight participants:
Upon completing this algorithm, all participants will possess the secret g^{abcdefgh}, but each participant will have performed only four modular exponentiations, rather than the eight implied by a simple circular arrangement. [edit]SecurityThe protocol is considered secure against eavesdroppers if G and g are chosen properly. The eavesdropper ("Eve") would have to solve the Diffie–Hellman problem to obtain g^{ab}. This is currently considered difficult. An efficient algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem would make it easy to compute a or b and solve the Diffie–Hellman problem, making this and many other public key cryptosystems insecure. The order of G should be prime or have a large prime factor to prevent use of the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm to obtain a or b. For this reason, a Sophie Germain prime q is sometimes used to calculate p=2q+1, called a safe prime, since the order of G is then only divisible by 2 and q. g is then sometimes chosen to generate the order q subgroup of G, rather than G, so that the Legendre symbol of g^{a} never reveals the low order bit of a. If Alice and Bob use random number generators whose outputs are not completely random and can be predicted to some extent, then Eve's task is much easier. The secret integers a and b are discarded at the end of the session. Therefore, Diffie–Hellman key exchange by itself trivially achieves perfect forward secrecy because no longterm private keying material exists to be disclosed. In the original description, the Diffie–Hellman exchange by itself does not provide authentication of the communicating parties and is thus vulnerable to a maninthemiddle attack. A person in the middle may establish two distinct Diffie–Hellman key exchanges, one with Alice and the other with Bob, effectively masquerading as Alice to Bob, and vice versa, allowing the attacker to decrypt (and read or store) then reencrypt the messages passed between them. A method to authenticate the communicating parties to each other is generally needed to prevent this type of attack. Variants of DiffieHellman, such as STS, may be used instead to avoid these types of attacks. [edit]Other uses[edit]Passwordauthenticated key agreementWhen Alice and Bob share a password, they may use a passwordauthenticated key agreement (PAKE) form of Diffie–Hellman to prevent maninthemiddle attacks. One simple scheme is to make the generator g the password. A feature of these schemes is that an attacker can only test one specific password on each iteration with the other party, and so the system provides good security with relatively weak passwords. This approach is described in ITUT Recommendation X.1035, which is used by the G.hn home networking standard. [edit]Public KeyIt is also possible to use Diffie–Hellman as part of a public key infrastructure. Alice's public key is simply (g^{a},g,p). To send her a message Bob chooses a random b, and then sends Alice g^{b} (unencrypted) together with the message encrypted with symmetric key (g^{a})^{b}. Only Alice can decrypt the message because only she has a. A preshared public key also prevents maninthemiddle attacks. In practice, Diffie–Hellman is not used in this way, with RSA being the dominant public key algorithm. This is largely for historical and commercial reasons, namely that RSA created a Certificate Authority that became Verisign. Diffie–Hellman cannot be used to sign certificates, although the ElGamal and DSA signature algorithms are related to it. However, it is related to MQV, STS and the IKE component of the IPsec protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol communications. [edit]See also
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